A Study on the Metaphor Translation from a Cognitive Perspective
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  【Abstract】With global economic integration, metaphor translation is increasingly applied to various fields of science and technology. Thus, this study will focus on the metaphor translation from a cognitive perspective. On the basis of cognitive metaphor theory and conceptual metaphor theory, this study will evaluate the metaphorical cognition mode and source of vehicle. From this new perspective, it reveals and clearly states the translation theory of cognitive equivalence and metaphor translation strategies.
  【Key words】metaphor translation; cognitive perspective
  1. Introduction to Metaphor
  The study of metaphor has a long history. In the past years, an increasing number of philosophers and rhetoricians pay attention to the metaphor researches and its usages. As Richards once said, “Metaphor is closely related with people’s daily conversations. Fundamentally, metaphor is a kind of communication between ideas and it also reflects the interaction between contexts.” Lakoff also believed that metaphor not only existed in language, but also existed in our thoughts and actions. In other words, metaphor is a way of thinking and cognition, which has penetrated into various aspects of language, culture, thinking and social activities. Moreover, metaphor plays an important role in translation. The sound way of translating metaphor words and sentences will determine the results of one work. Metaphor translation must highlight the function of related factors, including the translation contexts and translation principles.
  2. Metaphorical Cognition Mode
  “The greatest thing for people is the mastery of metaphor”, Aristotle argued. Metaphor is to compare the meaning of two words within imaginations. The two words must have similar factors. However, translators can not translate the metaphor by its apparent meaning. The translators should find its deep meaning within cognitive experience. The implied meaning of a metaphor is the interactive process between tenor and vehicle. For example:
  Mark Twain’s work is a mirror of America.
  The tenor refers to the ‘Mark Twain’s work’ and the vehicle is ‘mirror’. The mirror shows the reality of the United States. This process is the reflection of human’s metaphorical cognition, which determines the difference between tenor and vehicle. Meanwhile, the cognition of translating the metaphor is also influenced by social environment and culture. The metaphorical meaning requires the reader to have the cultural background of work. Therefore, in the process of C-E and E-C metaphor translations, translators need to pay attention to the real meaning in light of the cognitive perspective.   3. Source of Vehicle
  There are mainly five sources of different kinds of vehicles, including human body, animals and plants, daily words, common words and allusions. Along with the vehicle words, people can create sound expressions. Such as “wolf-pack” effect, people use this allusion to argue about the performance and form of one team work. Translators only master the different factors of various sources of metaphor, then, they can translate the words in the most proper way. Moreover, it enables readers to have a clear understanding about the words.
  4. Cognitive Equivalence Principle of Metaphor Translation
  Cognitive equivalence principle requires translators to highlight the function of context. Context analysis has closely connection with cognitive views. Context is the basis for identifying and understanding metaphors. The recognition of metaphor depends on context, at the same time, as a pragmatic phenomenon, needs contextual clues. When translators can not find the real meaning, they can identify metaphor and discourse on the basis of the transformations between words, topics and objects.
  Cognitive equivalence enables translators to understand the intra-linguistic context and extra-linguistic context of its semantic meanings. Thus translators can encounter difficulties in translating metaphors. The intra-linguistic context can help translators to understand the cultural background of the vehicle. Through the whole context, translator can accurately translate the meaning. Moreover, extra-linguistic context enables translators to eliminate word differences and find the omit information.
  5. Conclusion
  Metaphor translation is the reflection of cognitive perspective that it is both language and culture phenomenon. Translators should pay attention to the images of vehicle, the equivalence of cognitive meaning and the contexts. In addition, translators can take proper way to help them to understand and express the high-quality work.
  References:
  [1]Kittay,E.F.(1990).Metaphor:Its cognitive force and linguistic structure.Oxford University Press.
  [2]Lakoff,G.,& Johnson,M.(1980).The metaphorical structure of the human conceptual system.Cognitive science,4(2),195-208.

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