生态建材创造诗意栖居
作者 : 未知

  自古至今,居所都是人类生活的一个重要组成部分。随着生活水平的不断提高,人们对居住环境的要求也随之水涨船高,“人,诗意地栖居”,本是德国哲学家海德格尔对至高生存境界的一种向往。如今,诗意地栖居正成为越来越多的人心目中的期许。然而,环境破坏、生态恶化的现实却在逐渐拉开人们与理想之间的距离。目前,工业污染已不再是造成生态危机的唯一元凶,传统建筑材料也加入了破坏生态安全的行列。如何在人口增加、环境压力增大、资源有限的背景下打造更安全的居住空间,维护生态安全,已然成为世界各国共同关注的焦点。
  传统建筑材料的安全性遭置疑
  提及建筑材料,人们对其并不陌生。纵观人类社会的基本活动,如衣、食、住、行、无不直接或间接地和建筑材料有着密切的关系。如常见的石材、木材、水泥、混凝土、陶瓷砖、玻璃、各种油漆、涂料等。
  作为人类与自然环境之间的重要媒介,建筑材料对人类生存发挥着巨大的积极作用。然而,人们在享受现代物质文明的同时,却不得不面临着一个严峻的事实――传统建筑材料的生产与使用在改善人类居住环境的同时,也带来越来越不容忽视的消极作用,即对自然环境和生态平衡的破坏负有不可推卸的责任。据有关专家测算,每生产一吨水泥熟料,需要消耗110千克标准煤,同时排放856千克二氧化碳。目前,中国建材工业每年消耗原材料50亿吨,消耗煤炭2.3亿多吨,约占中国能源总消耗的15.8%,建筑能耗占到总能耗的40%以上;废弃排放量1.096亿立方米,废水排放量335亿吨。水泥、石灰与传统墙体材料等排放一氧化碳约为6.6亿吨,占中国工业一氧化碳排放量的40%左右;在中国的建材生产中,使用最多的原材料是粘土、石灰石和砂石。这些原材料平均每年开采50亿吨以上,从而破坏了大量的土地和资源。
  此外,建筑材料本身的污染问题也十分突出。例如,木饰材料多以密度板和胶合板为基材,而生产中密板和胶合板都离不开胶粘剂,胶粘剂中含有对人体十分有害的甲醛。又如,在不少传统的油漆和涂料中存在的铅超标问题,会造成接触者铅中毒。如今,如何减轻建筑材料的环境负荷,实现建筑材料的环保化,是当前建材工业可持续发展的重要课题。
  风声水起的生态建筑材料
  随着国际社会对生态安全问题的日益重视,世界各国越来越关注建筑的健康和环保特性,从而对建筑材料也提出了越来越高的要求。正是在这一背景下,生态建筑材料这一概念应运而生。20世纪80年代末,一些国家率先提出了“绿色建材”的概念。其中,德国是世界上最早推行环境标志制度的国家。1987年,德国发布了第一个环境标志――“蓝天使”后,至今实施“蓝天使”的产品已达7500多种,占全国商品的30%。如德国推出一种无色、无味,对人体无害的水性建筑涂料,在获得“蓝天使”标志后,很快就占据了市场,据资料介绍,环境标志――“蓝天使”已成为德国公众熟知的一种标志,德国所有大城市中,均有专门出售“绿色建材”的商店。
  丹麦为了促进绿色建材的发展,推出了“健康建材”(HMB)标准,规定必须标出健康指标。瑞典也是积极推动和发展绿色建材的北欧国家。瑞典的地面材料业很发达,每年都有大量出口,出口厂家已自觉在产品说明书上标出产品在4周和26周时,其有机化合物室内空气浓度指导限值。瑞典最大的住宅银行于1995年宣布,只向生态建筑开发商贷款。日本政府对绿色建材的发展也非常重视。日本于1988年开展环境标志工作,至今环保产品已有2500多种,日本科技厅于1993年制定并实施了“环境调和材料研究计划”。
  虽然业界对生态建筑材料的科学和权威定义仍未有定论,但是不少权威人士认为,生态建筑材料即在其生产、使用、废弃和再生循环过程中能与生态环境相协调,满足最少资源和能源消耗,最小或无环境污染,最佳使用性能,最高循环再利用率,从而达到节约资源和能源;减少环境污染,避免全球变暖与臭氧层的破坏;易回收和再循环利用的目的。可以说,建筑材料的绿色转型不仅能使居住者获得一个舒适且健康的居住环境,而且将对缓解资源短缺、节约能源和环境保护等起到很大的促进作用。近年来,各种各样的生态建筑材料如雨后春笋般涌现。比如无毒装饰材料,绿色涂料,采用生活和工业废弃物生产的建筑材料,有益健康和杀菌抗菌的建筑材料,低温或免烧水泥、土陶瓷、防火保温水泥等。
  中国建材产业亟待绿色转型
  相较而言,中国的生态建材起步较晚。中国政协委员、北京仁创科技集团董事长秦升益在接受媒体采访时介绍说,许多国家已经作出明文规定,凡无“绿色标志”的商品,在进口时要受到数量和价格方面的限制,这就是国际贸易中新兴的“绿色壁垒”。“绿色建材满足可持续发展的需要,在中国资源缺乏、环境污染严重的背景下,发展绿色建材,是实现发展与环境相统一的必然途径。然而,中国绿色建材尚处在起步阶段,发展程度较低,在发展中还存在着不少的问题。”秦升益说,例如绿色建材产品在整个建材市场中所占的比重很小。中国计划到2020年绿色建筑占新建建筑要超过30%,而欧美发达国家的建材产品达到“绿色”标准的已超过90%。
  2013年1月,中国国务院将绿色建筑提升到“国家战略”高度。国发办[2013]1号文件《绿色建筑行动方案》明确提出,“十二五”期间要完成新建绿色建筑10亿平方米,改造既有建筑近6亿平方米,“十二五”末期20%的城镇建筑要达到绿色建筑标准的目标。城乡与住房建设部副部长仇保兴更曾公开预计,2020年前,中国用于节能建筑项目的投资将至少达到1.5万亿元。随后,《绿色建材产品目录》的编制工作也随之全面启动。
  对此,工信部原材料工业司副司长潘爱华、住建部标准定额司副司长宋友春已经联合组成调研组就加快绿色建材发展、推进建材工业和建筑业节能减排等开展了调研工作。潘爱华表示,要把推动绿色建材发展作为建材工业贯彻落实“十八大”精神和推动建材工业转型升级的具体举措。“下一步,工信部与住建部将联合发布《绿色建材推广应用行动计划》,这个计划我们已经在起草中。”随着传统建筑绿色转型的进一步展开,中国生态建材的发展有望进入“快车道”。   From ancient times till now, dwelling has always been an important part of human life. With the constant improvement of living standard, people’s requirements for residential conditions are also experiencing corresponding rise. “Man, poetically dwells on the earth”, which was originally the dream of German philosopher Martin Heidegger for the supreme living state. Nowadays, it has become the expectations of more and more people. However, the reality of environmental destruction and ecological deterioration is gradually widening the distance between human beings and their ideals. At present, industrial contamination is not the only cause for ecological crisis any more, as traditional building materials are joining the pollutants of ecological safety. How to build safer habitable space and preserve ecological safety under the backdrop of population expansion, environmental pressure growth and resources limitation have become the common focus of countries around the world.
  Doubts on safety of traditional building materials
  When mentioning building materials, people do not feel unfamiliar with them. All basic activities of human life including food, clothing, sheltering and traveling are all closely connected in a direct or indirect way with common building materials, such as stone, wood, cement, concrete, ceramic tile, glass, various oil paints, coatings and so on.
  As an important medium between human beings and natural environment, building materials play a great positive role in people’s living. However, when enjoying modern material civilization, we have to face a tough reality, i.e., the production and application of traditional building materials improves dwelling conditions for mankind, but also bring more and more negative influence that cannot be ignored as well. They bear unshirkable responsibility for environmental destruction and ecological imbalance. According to the calculation by experts concerned, every ton of cement clinker needs 110 kilograms of standard coal and emits 856 kilograms carbon dioxide. Currently, China’s building material industry consumes 5 billion tons of raw materials and more than 230 million tons of coal every year, accounting for 15.8% of total national energy consumption. Construction energy consumption accounts for over 40% of the total number; the industry exhausts 109.6 million cubic meters of waste gas and discharges 33.5 billion tons of effluents per year; cement, lime and traditional wall materials produce 660 million tons of carbon monoxide emission which makes up 40% of that from all industries. For building materials production in China, most frequently used raw materials are clay, limestone and gravel. The average annual exploitation of these materials is more than 5 billion tons, which destroys plenty of land and resources.   What’s more, building materials themselves have serious pollution problems. For example, wooden decorations mostly use density board and plywood as base materials, while the two both need adhesive during producing process, which contains formaldehyde which is very harmful to human bodies. Besides, many traditional paintings and coatings have excessive lead contents, which may cause lead poisoning in contact. Nowadays, how to relieve the environmental burden on building materials and make them environmental friendly is an important task for the sustainable development of building materials industry.
  Flourishing ecological building materials
  With more and more attention paid by international community to ecological safety problems, countries in the world are becoming more concerned about the health and environmental features of buildings, and raise higher requirements for building materials. It is in this context that comes out the concept of ecological building materials. In 1980s, the idea of “green building materials” was put forward overseas. Germany is the first country practicing environmental label system. In 1987, Germany launched its first environmental label-“Blue Angel”. Now there are over 7500 products with the label, accounting for 30% of all products. For example, a colorless, odorless and harmless water-based coating occupies the market after obtaining the “Blue Angel” label. According to data, the environmental label of “Blue Angel” has become a very familiar one among German people, and there are stores specialized in selling “Green Building Materials” in all large cities in Germany.
  In order to boost the development of green building materials, Denmark proposed “Health Building Materials”(HMB) standard, asking for marked health indicators. Sweden is also a Northern Europe country which actively promotes green building materials development. It has an advanced ground material industry with abundant exports every year, and export manufacturers voluntarily mark the guideline values of organic compounds indoor air concentration of their products in 4 weeks and 26 weeks on product manuals. The biggest housing bank in Sweden announced in 1995 that it only provides loans to ecological building developers. The Japanese government pays much attention to green building materials development as well. It carried out environmental label project in 1988, and there are over 2500 green products now. The Japanese Science and Technology Department formulated and implemented the “Environmental Reconciling and Material Researching Plan” in the year of 1993.   Although the industry does not have the final scientific and authoritative definition of ecological building materials, many authorities think that they are materials which can coordinate with ecological environment during production, usage, discard and recycle and meet the requirements of least resources and energy consumption, least or no environmental pollution, best usability and highest recycling rate. So that the targets of saving resources and energy, reducing environmental pollution, avoiding global warming and ozone-layer destruction and easy recycling and reusing will be achieved. That is to say, the green transformation of building materials will not only offer a comfortable and healthy living environment for dwellers, but also play a huge role in easing resources shortage, conserving energy and protecting environment. In recent years, various ecological building materials have sprung out like mushrooms after rain. They include non-toxic decorative materials, green paintings, building materials produced from living and industrial wastes, healthy and antibacterial building materials, low temperature cement, unburned cement, soil ceramic, fireproofing insulating cement and so on.
  China’s building material industry needs green transformation urgently
  By contrast, China’s building material industry has a late start. Qin Shengyi, CPPCC member and chairman of Rechsand Science and Technology Group, said in a press interview that many countries have made clear terms mandating that there should be limitations on quantities and prices of imported products without “Green Label”, which is an emerging “Green Barrier” in international trade. “Green building materials meet the requirements of sustainable development, and it is an inevitable way to realize the unity of development and environment by developing green building materials under the backdrop of scarce resources and serious environmental pollution. However, the industry in China is still at the initial stage on a relatively lower development level, so there are a lot of problems in its progress,” said Qin Yisheng. For example, green building materials account for a very small part of the building material markets. China plans to raise the proportion of green buildings in new buildings to 30% in 2020. While more than 90% of building materials in developed countries in Europe and America have achieved the “Green” standard.
  In January 2013, State Council of China raised green buildings to the “National Strategy” level. No1 Document 2013-Green Building Action Plan issued by State Development and Reform Commission clearly pointed out that during the 12th Five-Year-Plan period, 1 billion square meters of new green buildings should be completed and about 600 million square meters of existing buildings should be rebuilt. At the end of the period, 20% of urban buildings should achieve the standard of green buildings. Qiu Baoxing, Deputy Minister of Ministry of Housing and City and Countryside Construction, made public prediction that before 2020, China will invest at least 1.5 trillion RMB in energy-saving building project. Then compilation of Green Building Materials Catalog will also be initiated in an all-round way.   As to this, Pan Aihua, Deputy Director of Raw Material Department of Ministry of Industry and Informationization, and Song Youchun, Deputy Director of Standard Quota Department of Ministry of Housing and City and Countryside Construction, have formed a research group to carry out research work for speeding up green building material development and promoting energy conservation and emission reduction in building material industry and building industry. Pan Aihua said that boosting the development of green building materials should be regarded as a specific move for building industry to implement the spirit of the “Eighteenth Congress of Chinese Communist Party” and to transform and upgrade the industry. “In the next stage, Ministry of Industry and Informationization and Ministry of Housing and City and Countryside Construction will jointly issue Green Building Material Popularization and Application Action Plan, which is in draft now.” With the expansion of green transformation of traditional buildings, the development of China’s ecological building materials is expected to enter an “express way”.

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