A Study on the Agricultural Exports’ Structure from China to the United States
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  Abstract. This paper selects the main agricultural import sources of the United States as a reference object. It analyzes agricultural exports structure from China to the United States by Spearman rank correlation coefficient, beneficiary index, Lawrence index. The results show that: the agricultural exports structure from China to the United States is more concentrated, and it is not match with the United States Agricultural import demand structure. Although it is in continuous optimization, it is less volatile.
  Key words: Export structure, Spearman rank correlation coefficient, Beneficiary index, Lawrence index
  1. Introduction
  Since entering the WTO, Sino-US agricultural trade sharply has risen from 3.501 billion dollars in 2001 to 30.748 billion dollars in 2012. The United States has become China’s fourth largest agricultural export market and the largest agricultural import market in 2012. China has become the largest U.S. export market and the fifth largest agricultural import market in 2012. But it also shows the uneven development characteristics, that’s in the Sino-US agricultural trade, China has been in the trade deficit and the trade deficit has expanded each year, from 4.94 billion dollars in 2004 to 48.94 billion dollars in 2012. China is a traditional agricultural country, and the United States is a developed industrial countries, but China is in the agricultural trade deficit to the United States, which has caused some scholars focusing on China agricultural exports to the United States trade. What is the agricultural exports structure from China to the United States? Is it match with the United States agricultural import demand structure? How did it change? In this paper, to provide realistic basis and decision-making reference for the promotion of China agricultural exports to the United States, we will analyze the agricultural export’s structure from China to the United States from these questions.
  2. Methodology and data sources
  2.1. Definition of agricultural products and selection of objects for comparison.
  In this paper, we use HS classification, named by Commodity Description and Coding System. HS is the world's most widely used product catalogs. We define agricultural products as all agricultural products from 01 to 24 chapters in HS classification criteria.
  This study belongs to the international competitiveness of research areas, and the study on the international competitiveness is inseparable from international comparisons, then we analyze comparatively selecting the leading import sources in the United States agricultural market, which are Canada, the European Union, Mexico, India, Brazil, Thailand, Australia, Indonesia, New Zealand (due to more developing countries, we chose it not Chile because it is a developed country). The agricultural products ’ export from China and these nine countries (regions) to the United States in 2012 are accounted for approximately 70% of the United States agricultural import, so the research on China and these nine countries’ agricultural export’s structure to the United States can basically reflect the competitive status of China's agricultural products in the United States market.

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