英语定语从句的汉译法
作者 : 未知

  通顺的翻译英语定语从句更非易事。有的英语定语从句较长,并且可能同时又有几个定语从句,这样定语部分就显得很长。要想翻译好这样的句子,除了要确切地把握住原意,还要在“通顺”上下功夫。本文试图通过实例来探讨英语定语从句的汉译方法,以求教于同行。
  英语定语从句分限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。现就它们的翻译方法分述如下:
  1、限制性定语从句
  1.1前置法
  采用“的”的结构,把从句部分译成汉语的定语,置于被修饰词之前。
  Theroom which served for studio was bare and dusty.
  这个用作工作室的房间空荡荡的,布满灰尘。
  Nothing can take the place of complete rest such as you can get from sleep.
  什么也代替不了从睡眠中得到的充分休息。
  I like a room whose window looks out over the sea.
  我想要一间窗户面临大海的房间。
  On the day before we left home there came a snowstorm.
  在我们出发的前一天,下了一场暴雪。
  1.2后置法
  如果从句部分的译文较长,前置显得不合乎汉语习惯,可译成后置的并列分句,有时要重复先行词。
  Inertia is that property of matter because of which a force must be exerted on a body in order to accelerate.
  惯性是物质的一种特性,由于这个特性,必须对一物体施加一种力才能使它加速运动。
  Phamacology is the science which deals especially with chemical changes in medicine as a result of which it is possible to develop new drugs.
  药理学是一门科学,它专门研究医药中的化学变化,从而有可能开发新药。
  These children have caring and loving parents who have not harmed them in any way whatsoever.
  这些孩子的父母关心爱护他们,而且从来没有以任何方式伤害过他们。
  1.3溶合法
  在There be 句型中,常把主语和定语从句溶合成单句
  There no places on the earth that the foot of man has not trodden.
  地球上没有一个地方人类没有到过。
  There are doctors who have grown up without having been called to treat a case of rabies.
  有些很有经验的医生从未接诊过狂犬病人。
  There are very few but admire his talents.
  很少有人不欣赏他的才干。
  There is much which will be unpleasing to the English reader.
  有些东西会使英国读者不愉快。
  2、非限制性定语从句
  2.1前置法
  限制性定语从句一般是描述性的或署名性,如果从句比较短,仍可译成前置定语。
  He liked his sister ,who was warmkind,but did not like his brother,who was aloof and arrogant.
  他喜欢他那活泼和蔼的姐姐,不喜欢他那冷漠高傲的哥哥。
  But his laugh, which was very infectious ,broke the silence.
  他那富有感染力的笑声打破了沉默。
  2.2后置法
  译成并列分句(重复或不重复先行词)
  It is possible to find in an enectric field a large number of points,all of which have the same potentials.
  可以在一个电场中找到许许多多的点,所有点都具有相同的电位。
  Food is taken in through the mouth ,where it is chewed and mixed with saliva.
  食物经口摄入,在口腔内咀嚼并与唾液拌合。
  There are 103 elements found in nature,most of which are metals.
  已经发现自然界有103种元素,其中大多数元素是金属。
  3、状语性定语从句
  有些定语从句,包括限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句,在语义上具有状语的功能,可表达时间、原因、条件、结果、让步、目的等。可译成相应的词或句。
  I saw Mr.Li ,who was walking on tha street.
  我看见李先生,(当时)他正在街上走着。(时间)
  The sick child,who had been given the medicine ,soon fell asleep.
  患儿服药后很快就入睡了。(时间)
  We don’t like the room, which is cold.
  我们不喜欢那个房间,(因为)它很冷。(原因)
  He would know nothing who wants to know everything.
  (假如)什么都想学,就什么也学不到。(条件)
  The vampire bat attacked the cattle,which sickened and died.
  吸血蝙蝠袭击家畜,造成家畜生病死亡。(结果)
  There was something orginal,independent and heroric about the plan that oleased all of them.
  这个方案富于创造性、独出心裁、很有魄力,使他们都很满意。(结果)
  Some of the patients,who had taken the medicine,showed no better because they had neglected the doctor’s advice.
  有些患者虽然服了药,仍不见好转,因为他们未遵医嘱。(让步)
  The disease ,which may occur at any age, is most frequent in early adult life.
  虽然该病可发生在任何年龄的人,但在青年人中最为常见(让步)
  Envoys were sent out who should promote friendly relations with other countries.
  对外派出使节,目的是促进与其它国家的友好关系。(目的)
  Singapore has a welfare called the central provident,which ensures that the retired have a nest egg.
  新加坡有一项被称为“中央节俭基金“的福利计划,以保证退休者有一份养老金。(目的)
  以上介绍的定语从句翻译尚不完善,现抄录两句英文及其翻译,供读者和同仁体味其翻译之妙。
  President Reagan is only the latest in a long line of intergovernmentalists who want to make sense of the functions of national,stateand local governments.
  主张各级政府协调整治的人,历来都有,他们的意图是要充分发挥联邦、州和地方政府的职能。里根总统只不过是最新代表人物。
  The Gross family are returniks―Russians who emigrated to the west and now decided to return.
  格罗斯一家人是回国移民,他们原是移居西方的俄罗斯人,现在决定回国定居。
  参考文献:
  1.张培基、喻云跟,李宗杰:英汉翻译教程,上海外语教育出版社 2010
  2.张志鸿:医学英语汉译技巧 人民卫生出版社 1980