Improving the Self development Ability of the Family and Differentiated Support Policies in the Ethnic Minority Areas of China
作者 : 未知

  Abstract:Related data from 2010-2015 from Enshi and Xiangxi prefectures show that the overall level of the familys ability for self development in ethnic minority areas is low and lags far behind that of families in other areas in China.  The quality of initial conditions is positively correlated with the level of familys self development ability. Improving  the ability of a family for self development in the ethnic minority areas is a complex, systematic task,  and cannot be achieved without differentiated support policies from the State. However, there is an obvious deficiency in current differentiated support policies concerning Precise Poverty Alleviation and vocational education that targets  the improvement of the familys ability for self development in ethnic minority areas. Therefore, actions should be taken to strengthen the support. This article provides the following policy suggestions:
  1.Suggestions for improving differentiated precise poverty alleviation policies
  1)Establish and improve  a legal system for precise poverty alleviation which ensures that precise poverty alleviation has legal basis.
  The most urgent task at present should be to speed up the construction and improvement of a legal system for precise poverty alleviation by taking into consideration the needs of precise poverty alleviation in ethnic minority areas, and by doing so provide legal guarantees for the effective promotion of precise poverty alleviation. At the same time, governments at all levels and relevant institutes in ethnic minority areas should also speed up formulating supportive systems or measures which will ensure that precise poverty alleviation work is carried out efficiently within the scope permitted and restricted by law, and that there are laws and rules to be followed.
  2)Build an information management system for precise poverty alleviation in order to improve the accuracy and effectiveness of the program.
  The concept of the “Internet + precise poverty alleviation” should be used to build an information management system for the precise poverty alleviation program. As a management and service platform for the program,  the information management system should play an important role in the efficient and accurate allocation of resources in implementing the program.
  3)Change  the usual way of implementation in which the government does all the work, and, instead, introduce the strategy that precise poverty alleviation programs be implemented and managed by a third party.   At present, the government still takes a holistic approach to implementing  precise poverty alleviation projects. Precise poverty alleviation projects, from preliminary research to the formulation of plans and the full implementation of the programs,  are all carried out by the government who takes full responsibility. Relevant enterprises and those who are targeted for assistance have no opportunity to participate in the project, and only accept or implement it passively.  Because the government interferes too much in market decision making, and governmental behavior replaces market behavior, the allocation of resources are not in place, the operating mechanisms are not sufficiently flexible, and the goal of “eliminating poverty and getting rich” is difficult to achieve. Therefore , the government should actively transform its role,  dynamically incubate and cultivate social organizations relevant for poverty alleviation, entrust the entire process of project implementation to a third party (enterprise or social organization)using market oriented means, and only perform a supervisory  function.
  2. Suggestionsfor improving differentiated vocational education policies
  1)Improve  the legal system for vocational education in ethnic minority areas in order to provide legal guarantees.
  Vocational education is a career opportunity in which diverse people participate, and different people have different interests and/or demands. So, the interests of these diverse people must be balanced by law. Thus, we should actively formulate the “Law on Vocational Education in Ethnic Minority Areas”, improve it from the legal perspective,  guarantee its legal effectiveness, and constantly improve this legal system for vocational education. In this law, mandatory and operable provisions should be made on the evaluating funding sources, industrial cooperation , and counterpart support from the eastern regions.
  2)Set up a vocational education development fund for ethnic minority areas so as to provide financial guarantees for this vocational education.
  Occupational education needs more resources, especially with regard to the investment of funds, and especially for occupational education in ethnic minority areas. Funding for vocational colleges is generally insufficient, and this seriously restricts the development of vocational education in ethnic minority areas. Therefore, it is suggested that, as an important part of supporting vocational education of ethnic minority areas, the state should promptly set up a vocational education development fund for ethnic minority areas, and raise funds from various sources.   3)Implement the “Ten year Counterpart Collaboration Project for Vocational Education” and improve long term mechanisms for counterpart collaboration for vocational education
  In addition to the state level inter provincial counterpart assistance, there is almost no independent assistance and cooperation between vocational colleges in the eastern and western regions. A long term interactive assistance mechanism between vocational colleges in ethnic minority areas and the eastern regions has not yet been formed; there is also a lack of institutional constraints and evaluation. Therefore, it is suggested that the state formulate a “Vocational Education Counterpart Cooperation Project for Ethnic Areas (2016-2025)” to implement the plans and requirements at the national level into the specific project.
  4)Implement a “Production Education Integration Project for Vocational Education” so as to establish an effective mechanism for the constant participation of enterprises
  The development of vocational education is inseparable from the extensive participation of all sectors of society. In the vocational education of ethnic minority regions, the role of industries and enterprises has not really been formulated and brought into play. The government should establish a long term effective educational mechanism with the active participation of industries, enterprises, social organizations and other sectors of society, promote the reform and innovation of vocational education in ethnic minority areas, and promote the sustained and healthy development of vocational education. It is suggested to implement a “Production Education Integration Project for Vocational Education in Ethnic Minority Regions” and gradually establish an effective mechanism for industries and enterprises to continuously participate in the vocational education in ethnic minority regions.
  Key Words:ethnic minority areas; familys self development ability; differentiated support policy; Precise Poverty Alleviation; vocational education
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