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《春秋正辞》的成书与清代公羊学的开山

来源:用户上传      作者:郑任钊

  [摘要] 清代公羊学始于庄存与《春秋正辞》,还是孔广森《春秋公羊通义》,学界一直有争议。本文认为《春秋正辞》在乾隆二十四年之前应已具备一定规模,在乾隆三四十年代应已成稿,其内容主旨与乾隆皇帝这个时段对《春秋》的表述亦有不少契合之处。《春秋正辞》撰著时间要早于《公羊通义》,其刊刻的一再推延一方面是因为庄存与感到与当时的学术氛围不合而秘不示人,另一方面则与该书始终未能完成修订有关。从学术渊源上讲,清代公羊学正是沿着庄存与《春秋正辞》开出的方向发展的,因此清代公羊学的开山之作当属庄存与的《春秋正辞》。
  [关键词] 庄存与;孔广森;撰著时间;乾隆皇帝;学术渊源
  [中图分类号] B249.9[文献标识码] A[文章编号] 1008―1763(2022)03―0026―08
  The Composition of Chunqiu Zhengci and the Dawn of
  the Gongyang Studies in the Qing DynastyZHENG Renzhao
  (Institute of Ancient History, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing100101, China)
  Abstract: In the Qing Dynasty, it has been a contested issue in academia over whether it was Zhuang Cunyu or Kong Guangsen that initiated the Gongyang Studies. This essay maintains that the Chunqiu Zhengci is reckoned to have achieved a substantial scale before the 24th year of Qianlong reign (C.E.1759), and it is construed to have reached its completion during the 30th year and the 40th of the Qianlong Reign (C.E.1765-1775), the underlying connotations of the Chunqiu Zhengci in this period accords closely with the narratives of Emperor Qianlong (r.1736-1796) toward the Chunqiu during the same era. While the composition era of the Chunqiu Zhengci predated that of the Gongyang Tongyi, its publication was repeatedly delayed because on the one hand, the author Zhuang Cunyu feared that his work went against the notion of the academia at that time and thus chose not to reveal it; on the other hand, it is believed that the book was under constant revision during that era. In terms of scholarly lineage, the Gongyang Studies in the Qing Dynasty fledged along the orientation of the Chunqiu Zhengci by Zhuang Cunyu; therefore, this essay predicates that Zhuang Cunyu initiated the dawn of the Gongyang Studies in the Qing Dynasty.
  Key words:Zhuang Cunyu; Kong Guangsen; composition era; Emperor Qianlong;scholarly lineage
  《春秋正o》是常州学派创始人庄存与(1719-1788)的代表作,也是清代公羊学的开山之作,在清代经学史上有着重要地位。杨向奎先生说:“溯源导流,清代公羊学的首倡者当推庄存与。”[1]177然而《春秋正辞》迟至道光七年(1827)才刊刻,在此之前孔广森(1752-1786)《春秋公羊通义》已于乾隆四十八年(1783)撰成,嘉庆十七年(1812)刊刻,那为何还能称《春秋正辞》为清代公羊学的开山呢?
  在《春秋正辞》正式面世之前的很长一段时间内,世人的印象里的确是以《春秋公羊通义》为清代第一部公羊学著作。刘逢禄在嘉道年间就说:“清兴百有余年,而曲阜孔先生广森始以《公羊春秋》为家法。”[2]57刘逢禄作为庄存与的外孙,亦是推始于孔广森。《春秋正辞》刊刻的迁延,造成了清代公羊学开端的迷蒙,刘逢禄的话使之更为缴绕不清。清代公羊学究竟是始于孔广森《春秋公羊通义》,还是庄存与《春秋正辞》,这是清代公羊学史的一个重要问题,也是学界争讼多年的一桩公案。目前关于此问题的看法,大体有以下三种:
  第一种意见以庄存与《春秋正辞》为首部著作。如陈其泰先生主张:“孔广森《公羊通义》撰成于乾隆年间,是清代继《春秋正辞》之后第二部公羊学著作。”[3]黄开国先生认为:“《春秋正辞》虽然早已成书,却未能刊刻。……决不能以庄存与著作的刊刻在后,就说孔广森是清代治《公羊传》的第一人,而否认庄存与是清代《公羊》学的开创者。”[4]

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