您好, 访客   登录/注册

《春秋》的“大义”与“微言”

来源:用户上传      作者:姜广辉,秦行国

  [摘要] 春秋时代,诸侯争霸,“霸”即“伯”,即争当“诸侯长”。历史上,虽有孟子等儒者对春秋史事评价过低,但孔子作《春秋》记载春秋大事,对齐桓公、晋文公主盟之事给予了积极、正面的评价,并从这段历史中发现政治智慧与思想之光,以“大义”和“微言”形式总结其中的经验。“大义”主要有:“尊王”“尊周”,反分裂;“选贤与能”,天下为公;天下治理,“会盟”共商;倡仁道,鄙诈力等。“微言”主要有:“大一统”;“通三统”;“张三世”;新“夷夏”观等。《春秋》“大义”和“微言”都具有与时俱进的特质和价值,可以进行现代性阐发与转化:政治上,维护国家统一,反对国家分裂,推举贤能理政;文化上,促进文明交流与民族融合,维护文明延续发展与民族团结等,这些在当代都具有宝贵的借鉴意义。
  [关键词] 孔子;《春秋》;大义;微言
  [中图分类号] B222[文献标识码] A[文章编号] 1008―1763(2022)03―0016―10
  Profound Meanings and Sublime Words in ChunqiuJIANG Guanghui,QIN Xingguo
  (Yuelu Academy, Hunan University, Changsha410082,China)
  Abstract:During the Spring and Autumn period, all principalities were competing for supremacy which was also called Bo (伯), the leading power among the principalities. Although undervalued by Mencius and other Confucians, this period of history was recorded by Confucius in Chunqiu (Annals of Spring and Autumn Period), praising Qi(齐) and Jin(晋) for their presiding over the alliance of principalities, highlighting the philosophic and political wisdom, summing up the profound meanings in sublime words. The major profound meanings include: Respect for the King and his Zhou Dynasty, opposing division; Commending talents with sound virtues and constructing a world fair for all people; Governing the world with alliance and through consultation; Advocating benevolence and dispraising treachery. The major sublime words include: Grand unification; Integrating three calendars; Asserting the theory of threegeneration; Renewing the view on Aliens and Chinese Han Nationality. The profound meanings and sublime words in Chunqiu (Annals of Spring and Autumn Period) can be found to advance with the times and thus can be interpreted and transformed in new dimensions. To be specific, in the political aspect, we should uphold national unity, oppose national division, and appoint talents to manage state affairs.In the cultural aspect, we should enhance cultural exchanges and ethnic integration, and maintain the sustained development of civilization and national unity, all of which are of vital significance in the contemporary era.
  Key words: Confucius; Chunqiu; profound meaning; sublime words
  民初年“废除尊孔读经”,传统经学传承衰歇,经典价值被深深覆盖,未能放光溢彩。近年,中国优秀传统文化全面复兴的号角已然吹响,经典价值的重估及其现代性阐释与转化成为大势所趋。六经中《春秋》一经,作为记载周王朝由盛转衰,诸侯争相称霸的历史,虽有“弑君三十六,亡国五十二”[1]3297的祸乱败亡之政,也有齐晋称霸、诸侯约盟以治的经国方略,其承载的治乱兴衰之道,是孔子借历史昭示治平之道的重要载体。然而,“孔子没而微言绝,七十子丧而大义乖”[2]1968,孟子以“春秋无义战”[3]2773评价春秋,并以“争地以战,杀人盈野;争城以战,杀人盈城”[3]2772将春秋与战国等同评价,以致后儒误判春秋史的价值。事实上,五霸之国,其政之治,其国之强,殊为有方,足为史鉴。因而,将孔子借《春秋》所昭示的治平之道,亦即隐而不明、寄寓褒贬的“大义”“微言”进行发覆阐微式的阐释,正“大义”、明“微言”,显得极为重要。

nlc202206211041



转载注明来源:https://www.xzbu.com/4/view-15434109.htm

相关文章

服务推荐