【Abstract】Vocabulary can not be ignored in Middle School English Teaching. It is the main approach to realize the fulfillment of communicative functions. Without words， we can not express what we want. Nowadays， there are many problems in learning vocabulary. The students can not find the technics in learning vocabulary. This because they don’t know the features of vocabulary. They can’t find an effective way to learn words. Traditional method for learning vocabuluary should be reformed. They should teach words according to their features. In this paper， I will provide some vocabulary-teaching techniques. And I hope they can be valuable.
In China， English teachers sometimes pay little attention to the importance of the lexical system. However， vocabulary is the essential material of language. If students have a very large vocabulary， then they can express anything as we want. Generally speaking， the number of the vocabulary that the students master can reflect their levels of handling English.
1.How to learn vocabulary by pronunciation
Good pronunciation should be one of the first things that a learner learns in English. There is something regular between the word’s pronunciation and its spelling. That’s called the Rule of Pronunciation. As to most words， if we can read them out correctly， then we can write them out correctly. But at first， we must grasp the RP， especially the pronunciation of some letter combinations. Many students treat the new words as if they are telephone numbers. For example， when they read the word “classroom”， they do it in this way： “c-l-a-s-s-r-o-o-m， classroom” instead of “cl[kl]-a[a：]-ss[s]-r[r]-oo[u：]-m[m]， classroom”. We should remember the spelling of the word according to its pronunciation. For example， “pronunciation” is a rather long word， and it is even very difficult to read the letters out one by one. So of course， it’s quite difficult to remember it mechanically. But relay on the RP， it becomes much easier. [pr ] is “pro”， [n n] is “nun”，[si] is “ci”， [ei] is “a”， [ n] is “tion”.
2.How to learn vocabulary by word-formation
The second characteristic is that English words can change their shape and their grammatical values， too. Students need to know facts about word formation and how to twist words to fit different grammatical contexts. The basic part of any word is the root； to it， you can add a prefix at the beginning and/or a suffix at the end to change the meaning. 2.1Prefixes
The majority of prefixes are characterized by their non-class - changing nature. Their chief function is to change meanings of roots. Prefixes can be classified into some groups on a semantic basis.
①Negative prefixes：dis-， non- un-. For instance， "dislike" means "not like"； "nondollar" means "not dollar"； "unexistence" means "not existent" ；
②Prefixes of degree or size：micro-， over-， under-. For example， "microcomputer" means "very small computer"； "overage" means "oldl"； "under-developed" means "less developed"；
Prefixes of time and order： "foretell" means "tell before happening"； "reconsider" means "consider again"， “pre” means “before”， for example， “prefabricate” means “预先建造”， “preface” means “序言、前奏”。
Unlike prefixes which primarily change the meaning of roots， suffixes’primary function is to change the grammatical function of roots. Therefore， suffixes can be grouped into noun，verb，adverb and adjective suffixes.
①Noun suffixes：-er，- hood， -ese， -ist， -tion. For example，“worker" means "a person who works"； "childhood" means "condition of being a child"； "Janpanese" means "a person from Japan".
②Verb suffixes： -fy， -ize， -en. For instance， "beautify" means "to make beautiful”，"apologize" means "to make an apology". "darken" means "to make dark"；
③Adverb suffixes：-ly， -wards. For example， "badly" means "to a serious degree"； "forwards" means "towards the front".
④Adjective suffixes：-able， -al， -ful， -y. For example， "acceptable" means "that can be allowed"， "national" means "of a nation"， "careful" means "showing attention to details"， "sunny" means "having a lot of sunshine".
Compounding， also known as composition，is the formation of new words by joining two or more roots. Words formed in this way are called compounds. So a compound is a lexical unit consisting of more than one root but functioning both grammatically and semantically as a single word. For example， Hand-book， peace- loving ， double-face， tired-looking， etc.
Based on the features of vocabulary， students can learn words easier. Of course there are also many method for the students to improve their vocabulary. But all methods need learner to work hard. Only know the method but don’t carry it out is meaningless. Many times， students think that they remember the words， but after a few days they forget. In fact， our memory process is a recycling process. The amount of recall without regular review differs greatly from recall with review. Expert found that after four reviews in a month， the amount of recall will still remain 75% to 90%. However， the amount of recall without regular review will just be drop to 0% to 10%. As a teacher， we should reform the traditional teaching method， and try to find new strategies to help the students to learn better.
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