21个石榴品种果实品质综合评价
作者 : 未知

  摘要:本研究以山东、河南、安徽、新疆4个石榴主产区21个主栽品种的成熟期果实为试材,测定比较平均单果重、可溶性固形物含量、籽粒含水量、果形指数、百粒重和籽粒硬度等指标并运用隶属函数法对各品种进行品质评级。结果表明:‘泰山红’石榴综合隶属度最高,在供试品种中综合表现最优,‘秋艳’‘皮亚曼’次之,3个品种评为Ⅰ级;‘淮北青皮软籽’‘竹叶青’‘满天红’‘冰糖籽’‘大笨籽’和‘谢花甜’评为Ⅱ级,品质表现次优;‘豫石榴3号’‘开封四季红’等8个品种综合隶属因子在2.8~3.2之间,综合品质中等,评为Ⅲ级;‘超青’‘牡丹’‘三白酸’‘淮北塔山红’4个品种综合隶属因子均在2.8以下,品种评为Ⅳ级。
  关键词:石榴;果实品质;综合评价
  中图分类号:S665.4 文献标识号:A 文章编号:1001-4942(2018)09-0027-05
  Abstract Mature fruits of 21 pomegranate species, which are main cultivars of Shandong, Henan, Anhui and Xinjiang provinces, were used to compare the fruit qualities from each other. Average single fruit weight, total soluble solid content, moisture content of grain, fruit shape index, hundred grain weight and grain hardness were assessed by applying the method of subordinate function. The results indicated ‘Taishanhong’ had the highest comprehensive membership degree in all of the 21 pomegranate varieties, ‘Qiuyan’ and ‘Piyaman’ cultivars took the second place, and these three cultivars were evaluated as theⅠlevel. ‘Huaibeiqingpiruanzi’, ‘Zhuyeqing’, ‘Mantianhong’, ‘Bingtangzi’, ‘Dabenzi’ and ‘Xiehuatian’ cultivars showed suboptimum qualities from the comprehensive subordinate factor, which were set as theⅡlevel. The comprehensive subordinate factor of 8 cultivars including‘Yushiliu 3’and ‘Kaifengsijihong’were between 2.8 to 3.2, which showed medium fruit qualities and were set as the Ⅲ level. The comprehensive subordinate factor of ‘Chaoqing’, ‘Mudan’, ‘Sanbaisuan’ and ‘Huaibeitashanhong’ were less than 2.8, which showed relatively poor qualities and were rated as the Ⅳ level.
  Keywords Pomegranate; Fruit quality; Comprehensive evaluation
  石榴(Punica granatum L.)属石榴科石榴属落叶灌木或小乔木,原产于伊朗和阿富汗等中亚地区。汉朝时传入我国,到现在已有2000多年的栽培历史。最早在新疆叶城栽培,继而在陕西、河南、山东、安徽种植,后遍布我国20多个省区,现主要分布于陕西临潼、河南开封、安徽怀远、山东枣庄、云南蒙自、四川会理、新疆和田等地区。石榴果实中含有丰富的碳水化合物、蛋白质、氨基酸、维生素和人体所必需的微量元素,营养价值高,在各种水果中十分突出,是一种功能型水果[1]。
  目前石榴栽培品种众多,但关于果实品质评价方面研究甚少。隶属函数法作为一种综合评价方法,近年来广泛应用于科研领域,尤其在抗寒性[2-5]、抗旱性[6-8]、耐热性[9]、耐盐性[10,11]和品种筛选[12]等方面的应用最为广泛。
  本试验选取山东、河南、安徽和新疆4个主产区的21��石榴主栽品种引入泰安种植,对各品种果实性状进行测定分析并利用隶属函数法对所测性状进行综合分析评级,确定不同品种在泰安地区的品质水平,以期为石榴种质资源研究、良种选育及引种提供参考。
  1 材料与方法
  1.1 试验材料
  本试验石榴品种(表1)均种植于山东省果树研究所石榴资源种植圃,于2009年引自各主产区,树体生长良好。
  1.2 试验方法
  于2017年9月30日石榴果实成熟期统一采摘达商品成熟度果实,每品种采5~10个,带回实验室进行相关指标的测定。
  1.3 指标测定及方法
  称取各品种成熟果实5个,计算平均单果重。采用WYT型手持糖量计测定总可溶性固形物含量。籽粒含水量测定方法:分别将各品种石榴籽粒剥离出来称籽粒鲜重Fw,后置于烘箱中烘干至恒重Dw,石榴籽粒含水量(%)=(Fw-Dw)/Fw×100。用游标卡尺测定果实横径和纵径,计算果形指数。籽粒百粒重的计算方法:采用四分法,分别剥取各石榴3~5个果实中的籽粒共计100粒,混匀后称取质量。采用数显谷物硬度计GWJ-W(北京金科利达电子科技有限公司)测定籽粒硬度,每品种随机重复取籽粒测定10次取平均值。