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茶树专用肥施用对土壤化学性质及茶叶产量、品质的影响

来源:用户上传      作者:洪春来 洪海清 叶洪清 王卫平

  摘 要:为优化茶园施肥技术,采用田间小区对比试验方法,开展了2种有机无机配方专用肥连续2年施用对茶园土壤理化性质及茶叶产量、品质的影响研究。结果表明:施用茶树专用肥可提升土壤pH值,显著增加土壤有机质、全氮和有效磷的含量;在化肥施用量减少20%的前提下,施专用肥的茶叶产量第1年有所减产,但第2年与对照相比已没有显著差异;经过2年的茶树有机无机专用肥施用后,茶叶中水浸出物含量、粗蛋白和氨基酸总量均有所增加。综上,茶树专用肥在茶叶产区具有良好的推广应用价值。
  关键词:茶树专用肥;产量;品质;土壤化学性质
  中图分类号:S571.1;S143.6 文献标志码:A DOI 编码:10.3969/j.issn.1006-6500.2022.06.013
  Effects of Tea Tree Special Fertilizer Application on Soil Chemical Properties and Tea Yield and Quality
  HONG Chunlai1, HONG Haiqing2, YE Hongqing3, WANG Weiping1
  (1.Institute of Environmental Resources and Soil Fertilizers, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310021,China; 2. Songyang County Agriculture and Rural Affairs Bureau, Lishui, Zhejiang 323400,China; 3. Songyang County Lvmingfeng Tea Company Limited, Lishui, Zhejiang 323406,China)
  Abstract:In order to optimize the fertilization technology in tea gardens, using the method of field plot comparison test, a study was carried out on the effects of two kinds of organic and inorganic formula special fertilizers on the physicochemical properties of tea garden soil and the yield and quality of tea leaves for two consecutive years. The results showed that the application of special fertilizer for tea trees could increase soil pH value, increase the content of soil organic matter, total nitrogen and available phosphorus significantly, and under the premise of reducing the amount of chemical fertilizer application by 20%, the yield of tea with special fertilizer application decreased in the first year. However, in the second year, there was no significant difference compared with the control. After two years of application of organic and inorganic special fertilizers for tea trees, the content of water extract, crude protein and total amino acids in tea all increased. In comclusion, the special fertilizer for tea trees has good promotion and application value in tea producing areas.
  Key words: special fertilizer for tea tree; yield; quality; soil chemical properties
  茶产业是浙江省丽水市松阳县的主导产业之一。2019年,松阳全县现有茶园面积0.879万hm2,其中采摘茶园0.842万hm2,全年茶叶总产量1.57万t,产值15.76亿元,全县茶叶全产业链总产值122.18亿元,超过40%的人口从事茶产业,60%的农业总产值来源于茶产业[1]。茶农为了增加茶叶产量,长期大量施用化肥,造成茶园土壤板结、酸化,有机质含量减少等问题,不仅破坏了茶园生态系统,还降低了茶叶品质[2-3],同r土壤中化学养分大量积累还有可能随着水土流失造成水源污染[4]。因此,研究优化茶园施肥结构,开发新型有机无机复混专用肥,对于改善茶园土壤的理化性质,减少化肥施用,降低化学污染,实现茶产业的可持续发展均具有重要意义。本研究根据茶树的营养需求特征及现有施肥水平,以松阳县当地生猪养殖的发酵床垫料为原料,研制茶树有机无机专用配方肥,以期筛选出适宜松阳茶树营养要求、能提高茶叶产量、降低肥料投入成本、改善茶叶品质的有机无机专用肥配方,并在丽水市松阳县及国内茶叶产区进行示范应用和推广。

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