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稻草和地膜覆盖对青脆李裂果和果实品质的影响

来源:用户上传      作者:马晓丽 袁项成 向苹苇 刘雪峰

  摘 要:为研究稻草和地膜覆盖对李裂果和果实品质的影响,以易裂品种青脆李为试材,采用稻草覆盖、地膜覆盖和自然生草覆盖,统计3种覆盖下青脆李裂果率、裂果方式、裂果部位的差异,测定了土壤、叶片和果实中的含水率,以及果胶、纤维素、单果质量、糖、酸等果实品质指标。结果表明:青脆李在自然生草覆盖下,裂果率近85%,相当严重,地膜覆盖下显著降低了土壤含水率和果实含水率,裂果率降至68.94%;地膜覆盖下,以纵裂或者半圆型和纵裂型的混合开裂最多,稻草覆盖和自然生草覆盖下,均以半圆型方式开裂最多;地膜覆盖下青脆李果实单果质量44.18 g、可溶性固形物为9.7%、总糖含量52 g・L-1,均显著高于稻草覆盖和自然生草覆盖。综上,地膜覆盖和稻草覆盖对青脆李裂果有一定的防控效果,并能够提高果实品质。
  关键词:青脆李;地面覆盖;裂果;果实品质
  中图分类号:S662.3 文献标识码:A DOI 编码:10.3969/j.issn.1006-6500.2022.06.009
  Effects of Straw and Plastic Film Mulching on Cracking Fruit and Fruit Quality of Prunussalicina Lindl
  MA Xiaoli, YUAN Xiangcheng, XIANG Pingwei, LIU Xuefeng
  (Chongqing Three Gorges Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wanzhou, Chongqing 404155, China)
  Abstract: For the study of straw and plastic film mulching influence on lee dehiscent fruit and fruit quality, in order to easy to crack varieties Prunussalicina Lindl. as the test materials, brittle with straw cover, the plastic film mulch and natural grass, statistics of green covered with three kinds of brittle Prunussalicina Lindl., dehiscent fruit, dehiscent fruit rate, dehiscent fruit area difference, the moisture content of soil, leaf and fruit were measured respectively, and pectin, cellulose, fruit weight, sugar, acid and other fruit quality indicators were measured. The results showed that:under the natural grass mulch, the dehiscent fruit rate was nearly 85%, which was quite serious. Under the plastic film mulch, the water content of soil and fruit was significantly reduced, and the dehiscent fruit rate was reduced to 68.94%.Under plastic film mulching, longitudinal cracking or semi-circular and longitudinal cracking were the most, and under straw mulching and natural grass mulching, semi-circular cracking was the most.(3) Under plastic film mulching, the fruit weight of 44.18 g, soluble solid content of 9.7% and total sugar content of 52 g・L-1 were significantly higher than those under straw and natural grass mulching. In conclusion, plastic film mulching and straw mulching have certain control effect on cracking fruit of Prunuscrispina Lindl., and can improve fruit quality.
  Key words: Prunussalicina Lindl.; ground cover; cracking; fruit quality
  青脆李(Prunussalicina Lindl.)果清香爽口,质地脆嫩,硬度适中,还具有肉、核易分离等独特品质[1],且耐贫瘠,容易管理,花芽易形成,是适宜在贫困地区推广的树种[2]。近年来,青脆李在我国南方地区发展迅速,种植面积逐渐增大,譬如在山地居多的重庆市,其种植面积和产量均跃居全市水果第2位[3]。随着脆李产业的快速发展,各大产区普遍反映裂果问题突出,部分园区裂果率甚至超过80%,对青脆李果实的外观、品质和产量的影响严重,大大降低了果实的商品价值,果实开裂问题已经制约青脆李的健康发展。因此,研究裂果的防治措施具有重要意义。

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