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不同覆盖模式对阳荷笋的影响研究

来源:用户上传      作者:张�h 余永松 顿耀元 孙琦 黄进 王小丽

  摘 要:为研究不同覆盖模式对阳荷出笋情况的影响,以鄂西北山区阳荷块茎为种源,采用黑膜、黑桶、秸秆3种覆盖模式进行对比试验研究。结果表明:黑膜和黑桶覆盖模式种植下,阳荷种姜的发芽率均达到90%以上。黑膜覆盖模式下种植效果最好,阳荷笋的平均长度、单笋质量及产量分别为15.81±2.02 cm、17.73±1.00 g、2 622.45±100.05 kg・hm-2,并且阳荷笋外相较好,出笋时间最早。秸秆覆盖模式种植阳荷笋的成本虽然最低,但出笋质量较差,主要表现在对阳荷笋直立生长存在影响。在实际操作中,黑膜覆盖种植模式操作简单便捷,方便定期通风和数据统计分析。综合分析,黑膜覆盖是阳荷出笋生长较适宜的种植模式。
  关键词:阳荷;覆盖模式;生长情况;发芽率;产量;种植成本
  中图分类号:S626;S647 文献标识码:A DOI 编码:10.3969/j.issn.1006-6500.2022.06.007
  Study on the Effect of Different Coverage Modes on the Growth of Shoots of Zingiber striolatum Diels
  ZHANG Yue, YU Yongsong, DUN Yaoyuan, SUN Qi, HUANG Jin,WANG Xiaoli
  (Shiyan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shiyan, Hubei 442000, China)
  Abstract: In order to study the effect of different mulching modes on the shoots of Yanghe, using the tubers of Yanghe as the material, three mulching modes of black film, black bucket and straw were used to conduct comparative experiments. The results showed that under the black film and black barrel mulching modes, the germination rate of Yanghe ginger was over 90%. The planting effect was the best under the black film mulching mode. The average length, single bamboo shoot weight and yield of Yanghe bamboo shoots were 15.81±2.02 cm, 17.73±1.00 g, and 2 622.45±100.05 kg・ha-1, respectively. The appearance of Yanghe bamboo shoots was good, and the bamboo shoots grown earliest time. Although the cost of planting Sunflower bamboo shoots with straw mulching mode was the lowest, the quality of shoots was poor, which mainly affected the erect growth of Sunflower shoots. In actual operation, the black film mulching planting mode was simple and convenient to operate, which was convenient for regular ventilation and statistical analysis of data. Comprehensive analysis, black film mulching is a more suitable planting mode for the growth of shoots of the sun lotus.
  Key words: shoots of Zingiber striolatum Diels; coverage modes; conditions on growth; germination rate; yield; planting cost
  荷(Zingiber striolatum Diels),又名茗荷、野姜、莲花姜、观音花,是多年生草本植物,属被子植物门双子叶植物纲藤黄目姜科姜属[1],喜阴耐凉,常见于树荫、溪边、沟渠处,主要分布在我国的湖北、湖南、广东、四川、云南、重庆、贵州等地[2-3]。阳荷营养物质丰富,含有人体所需的多种蛋白质、维生素等物质[4-5]。试验表明,在100 g鲜阳荷中,蛋白质含量为12.4 g、脂肪含量为2.2 g、粗纤维含量为28.1 g、总糖含量为3.41 g、维生素含量约为104 mg,并且含有磷、钙、铁等多种矿物质[5]。据《中国药典》和本草纲目记载,阳荷具有一定的药用价值,具有化痰止咳、清热解毒、健胃消食、活血调经等药用功效[6]。同时,对治疗糖尿病、便秘具有很好的效果[7]。
  阳荷全身是宝,阳荷笋、阳荷花苞都是重要的可食用部位,含有丰富的营养物质。其中阳荷笋是阳荷春季初生的鲜嫩芽,呈圆锥形的笋苔,其顶部呈紫红色,颜色向下逐渐变白色,是一种天然的绿色山珍,可炒食,也可凉拌食用。自然生长的阳荷通常在3―4月份发芽,采用避光和控温等措施,可促进阳荷笋提前生长,降低其纤维素含量,改善阳荷笋的品质,提高阳荷笋产量[8-9]。

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