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图表信息类书面表达写作指导

  一、题型特点
  图表信息类书面表达一向是中考英语写作中的难点,所涉及的题材广泛,如人物简介、地点介绍、新闻报道等;体裁多种多样,文体多以说明文和议论文为主,其特点为条理清晰,具有可译性。考查时要求同学们根据图表、数据等进行分析与研究,阅读其中的文字和弄清各种信息之间的关系,提炼要点,然后组织语言进行写作,必要时还要加入作者自己的观点。
  二、写作思路
  1.认真阅读写作要求,根据图表提示,确认题目的目的、要求以及表达的中心内容,从而确定文章的体裁和格式。
  2.分析图表的提示内容,按顺序逐一地、完整无缺地把图表中的内容找出来,用英语列出要点及各个要点的关键词语,再选用自己最有把握的句型来连词成句,将有关信息都体现在自己所写的语句之中。
  3.核对要点,注意过渡,保证通顺。完成初稿之后,应对照图表所给的提示,核对要点是否有遗漏,各个要点是否表达准确。还要注意上下句之间的联系,适当添加过渡句或连接词,以便连成一篇内容连贯、逻辑通顺的短文。
  4.默读检查,注意格式。仔细默读所写短文草稿,检查各个句子的语法结构是否正确,句子之间是否通顺连贯,以及所写的文体格式是否规范等,确定无误后再将短文认真书写在试卷上。同时注意单词拼写、字母大小写、标点符号等细节之处,做到工整、简洁、规范。
  三、注意事项
  1.图表作文的结构通常为三部分:(1)分析图表中的数据变化所反映出的问题或趋势,简要概述图表所揭示的信息;(2)分析原因;(3)提出解决问题的办法或建议。因此,同学们在写作时要直截了当、尽快人题,适当加入自己的议论,力争做到观点明确,不要拐弯抹角,拖泥带水,使人读后一头雾水。
  2.突出重点,抓住图表中的数值极点,如最大或最小、最多或最少、最好和最差等信息。
  3.说明、描述图表时应该注意动词时态,属于过去发生的应该用一般过去时,属于经常发生的应该用一般现在时。
  4.充分利用图表中提供的文字或说明,但是,不能任意捏造图表中没有的信息。
  四、实例分析
  (2015年成都卷)请根据以下交通事故因素(factors)统计图表,以“Major causes of traffic ac-cidents”为题,用英语写一篇简短的分析报告,向学校英语报投稿。
  注意:
  1.报告需逐条陈述下面pie chart和bar chart(柱状图)中呈现的主要内容。(至少5点)
  2.提出你对交通安全总的看法。(至少2点)
  3.词数:100左右,所给标题不计入总词数。
  【写法点拨】
  题目要求写一篇关于交通事故的简短分析报告,文体为说明议论文。
  1.引出话题:Nowadays, there are always kinds of traffic accident reports.
  2.分析图表内容:
  pie chart: driver factors,85%;vehicle fac-tors,5%;road environment factors,10%(三种因素中,驾驶员因素是关键原因)
  bar chart:speeding,50%;drunk driving,15%;tired driving,26%;not using seat-belt,25%(疲劳驾驶因素与不使用安全带因素所占比例相当)
  3.自己观点:pay attention to traffic safety in our life;try to obey the traffic rules
  [关键词语]
  analyze the major causes“分析主要原因”;the followings“如下”;according to“根据”;as well as“与……一样(程度)”;in my opiniort“在我看来”;keep in mind“记住”;at the same time“同时”
  [常用句式]
  It's important for us to analyze…
  It's quite clear that…
  The harder we try,the happier our life will be
  [参考范文]
  Major Causes of Traffic Accidents
  Nowadays,there are always kinds of traffic accidents reports from newspapers,TV news and so on.As a result,it's important for us to analyze the major causes.The followings are two reports.
  According to the pie chart,there are mainly three factors:85% is about driver factors,5% is from vehicle factors and 10% is road environment factors.Among them,it's quite clear that the first one is the key point.
  So another bar chart points that there are four reasons to causes it,including speeding which is 50%,drunk driving which holds 15%,tired driving which is 26% as well as not using seat-belt which is 25%.   In my opinion,everyone should keep in mind that traffic safety is one of the most important things in our life.At the same time,we should try our best to obey the traffic rules.The harder we try,the happier our life will bel
  [写作亮点]
  本文在结构上采用“三段式”写作模式谋篇布局。第一段开门见山,引出交通事故这个话题;第二段分析造成交通事故的各种原因;第三段提出自己的观点。整篇文章思路清晰,层次分明,语言得体,用词准确。
  五、备考建议
  1.加强阅读,背诵课文。
  “读书破万卷,下笔如有神”,平时大量的英文阅读和好词好句的积累是提高写作水平的关键。在作文上能得高分者,必然是一个成功的阅读者。通过阅读,同学们可以巩固所学的重点词汇与典型句型,不断夯实语言基础。
  2.研读范文,模仿训练。
  模仿是学习语言的一种基本形式,同学们在复习时可以寻找一些图表类书面表达,多做一些这方面的练习。从内容上看,词汇、句型、段落与篇章都可以仿写,大家应学会在模仿中掌握写作技巧。
  3.掌握技巧,提高能力。
  一篇好的作文,不仅体现学生遣词造句、把握条理思路的能力,而且能反映出其逻辑思维和思想认识等方面的状况。同学们可以从简单一些的提纲式作文开始练习,逐步过渡到比较难的图表式作文,切实抓好“认真审题、构思谋篇、遣词造句、连句成文”这几个关键环节。
  六、专项训练
  (一)
  (2015年江西卷)英文有句谚语“East,west,home’s best.”某英文报以此为标题,向广大中学生征文。请根据下面图表信息写一篇短文,介绍你家的情况。内容包括:你家的居室及居住环境、家庭成员及家庭成员之间的关系,并谈谈如何让你的家更美好。
  提示:
  1.短文应包括图表中的全部信息,条理清楚,行文连贯;
  2.短文中不能出现真实的人名和地名;
  3.词数不少于80,开头已给出,不计入总词数。
  East,west,home's best
  (二)
  (2015年宁波卷)最近,学校就空中俱乐部的英语学习内容设置做了意向调查(结果见下面图表)。请你帮俱乐部用英语写一篇报告,并谈谈你自己的想法或建议。
  注意:
  (1)文中应包含图表所提供的要点,可适当发挥;
  (2)想法和建议至少两条;文中不能出现真实姓名和校名;
  (3)词数:80-100(短文开头不计入总词数,考生可以选择使用)。
  Recently we've made a survey of school sky English club.____________________________
  (三)
  (2015年杭州卷)根据下表用英语写一篇80词左右的短文,内容须包括:对下表中关于(City A和City B)的全部信息进行比较,分析利弊,确定其中一个城市作为你的暑假旅游目的地。
  In my opinion.____is the better place tospend my summer holiday.____________________
  (四)
  (2015年台州卷)正值毕业季,你们班的“英语园地”在征集庆祝毕业活动方式的建议,以下是你们组三位同学的想法及理由,请你根据这些信息写一篇英语短文,并谈谈你自己的想法和理由。
  注意:
  (1)短文必须包括图片中的所有内容,可适当增加细节。
  (2)文中不得出现真实人名和校名等相关信息。
  (3)词数:80-100。
  (4)短文首句仅供选择使用,不计入总词数。
  短文首句:These days,students in our class are discussing the ways to celebrate graduation.
  (五)
  (2015年泉州卷)在学习生活中,每个人都要面对各种困难。如何应对这些困难呢?请你根据以下思维导图所提供的信息,以“How to Deal with Difficulties in Learning”为题,写一篇90词左右的英语短文。
  参考词汇:参考书reference book
  温馨提示:短文中请勿使用真实姓名,地点或所在学校名称。
  How to Deal with Difficulties in Learning____________________________________________
  (六)
  (2015年广州卷)你校将开设一些特色课程,学生可根据兴趣进行选择。请根据以下内容提示为学校英文网页写一篇短文,介绍这些课程、提出你建议增设的课程并说明理由。
  Students in our school are free to choose some special courses according to their interest...
  注意:
  1.参考词汇:模型制作model making
  2.词数80左右(文章开头已给出,不计人总词数);
  3.不得透露学校、姓名等任何个人信息,否则不予评分。________________________________________   (七)
  (2015年兰州卷)同学们,在刚才的阅读中我们了解到一些有关西方饮食文化的有趣知识。现在某国外旅游杂志向你约稿,请你以When in China,do as the Chinese do为题写一篇文章,向西方读者介绍我们中国的饮食文化。以下是此杂志社发来的稿件要求,请仔细阅读,完成写作。
  要求:内容合理;要点齐全;句子及篇章结构准确、连贯;书写规范。____________________________________________
  参考范文:
  (一)
  East,west,home's best
  A
  There is an old saying,"East,west,home's best."I live in a house in the countryside.There is a big living room,three bedrooms,a kitchen and washroom in it.There are some trees and flowers around my house.The air is really clean.And I often hear birds singing.
  There are four people in my family.They are my parents,my sister and I.We are helpful and friendly.And we always get on well with each other.
  I am happy I have a good family.I will do what I can to help do more housework and farm work.I will study harder so that I can make more money in the future.With our effort,I'm sure my home will be better and better.
  B
  There is an old saying,"East,west,home's best."I live in an apartment.In it there is a sit-ting room,two bedrooms,a washing room,a kitch-en and a study.Thanks to my mother,my room is always clean and tidy.The flowers in the sitting room look lovely.My apartment is not big,be-cause there are only three people in my family,my father,my mother and I.Sometimes my par-ents argue,but usually they get on very well.They love me and I love them,too.
  Everyone needs a good home.I'll do my best to make my home better.On one hand,I'll study harder to make my parents happier.On the other hand,I'll do what I can to improve our living envi-ronment.
  (二)
  Recently we've made a survey of school sky English chub. Here are the results.We find that fifty-one percent of the students want to practicetheir spoken English by using Internet.Twenty-five percent like watching English movies,which can make their holiday life better.Eighteen per-cent would like to read more English classics be-cause they are interested in them.Six percent hope that they can leam more foreign culture,such as good manners and western festivals.
  As far as I know,it's very helpful to improve English by learning English songs.Maybe we can invite foreigners to introduce good ways to learn songs.I'm sure all of us will have fun in the school sky English club.
  (三)
  A
  In my oponion,City A is the better place to spend my summer holiday, Although the temper-ature there is higher,the hotel is less comfortable.and even the food is not as delicious as that in City B,I still choose City A.The most important reason is that I can have a lot of things to do in City A.I can enjoy more beautiful scenery and do more activities.Besides,it takes us only two hours to fly there,which saves us a lot of time.I hope the holiday will be an unforgettable experi-ence.   B
  In my opinion,City B is thee bener place to spend my summer holiday.Although it takes me two more hours to fly there on an airplane,and I don't have many things to do,I still choose City B.The most important reason is that City B has better weather,not too hot or too cold.Besides,the hotel there is more comfortable and the food is more delicious than that in City A.All these make my holiday more relaxing.I hope the com-ing summer holiday will be an unforgettable ex-perience.
  (四)
  These days,students in our class are discuss-ing the ways to celebrate graduation.Here are some ideas from our group.
  As for Jim,he thinks we can have a party to relax ourselves.To Mike,he refers to plant trees to make our school more beautiful.Besides,it's a special way to express thanks to our school.In Nancy's view,she likes to make a video to record the school life with teachers and classmates.
  In my opinion,travelling with classmates is a meaningful way to celebrate graduation.On one hand,it's a chance to get together and have fun.On the other hand,we can start a new life journey through travelling.
  (五)
  How to Deal with Difficulties in Learning
  Everyone may face difficulties in learning.Once I could hardly follow my teachers in class and I made many mistakes in my homework and tests.I really felt sad.
  Now whenever I meet difficulties,I'll try hard to overcome them instead of giving up.Sometimes I look up in reference.books or search the Inter-net,and sometimes I turn to my teachers or class-mates.With hard work,I have done much better in my studies.
  Nothing is too difficult if we put our hearts into it.Whatever difficulty we meet,there's al-ways a way for us to deal with it.
  (六)
  Studets in our school are free to choose some special courses accordin to their interest.These courses will help students relax themselves after school.There are many courses for them to choose,such as English drama,football,or model making.Here is more information.
  If you want to improve your oral English,English drama may be the first choice.It is a good chance to practice not only oral English,but also performing skills.If you are interested in football,take the football course.It is good for your physi-cal health.Besides,you can learn more about teamwork.What about model making?You will be amazed by the science world and become inter-ested in it.
  For my part,a painting course can be added,because students like drawing so much.I hope these courses would be helpful and each student would enjoy a bright and colorful school life herel
  (七)
  When in China,do as the Chinese do!
  Meals in China are different in some ways from meals in the West.In China,lunch is usual-ly served around 12 o'clock. As for dinner,Chi-nese people eat it much earlier than people in the West.Chopsticks are used to eat most food.Gen-erally,for dinner,there'll be lots of different dish-es,not just three courses.Besides,Chinese peo-ple like to talk about food,so it's a good topic dur-ing ameal.The golden rule is:When you're in China,watch the Chinese and do as they do!

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