英汉表述中定语位置的差异
作者 : 未知

  在平常的学习中,大家可能已意识到英汉表达上的差异,而这些差异对于英语写作的影响尤甚,一不留神,我们就会写出Chinglish(中式英文),让人捧腹喷饭,娱乐精神十足,却对提高得分毫无帮助。所以,在写作时,我们要有意识地注意到英汉表达上的差异,从而写出最起码是正确的句子。
  汉语中的定语,无论长与短,都是放在被修饰的名词的前面,而在英语中,只有单个的形容词、分词或名词作定语时才能放在所修饰的名词前面,称为“前置定语”;形容词短语、分词短语、不定式短语、介词短语或定语从句作定语,只能放在所修饰的名词之后,构成“后置定语”。所以,在写作中,当定语较长时,我们就先翻译“的”之后的名词,再翻译“的”之前的短语或定语从句等。
  另外,在有些情况下,即使单个的形容词也只能作后置定语。
  一、名词/代词+形容词(短语)作后置定语
  1. 形容词所修饰的中心词为由one, no, any, some, every等构成的复合不定代词时,形容词置于其后。
  I have learnt something important from this experience.从此次经历中,我得到了一些重要的教训。
  He wants to travel somewhere exciting in his summer vacation.他暑假想去刺激的地方旅行。
  2. 以字母a-开头的表语形容词,如 asleep, awake, afraid, alive 和present(在场的)等作定语时通常后置。如:
  He is the only one alive in the accident.他是事故中的唯一幸存者。
  All the people present were moved by his performance.在场的所有观众都被他的表演所感动。
  3. 形容词比较结构“as...as...;比较级+than...”须作后置定语。如:
  So far he hasn’t found a book as valuable as this one.迄今为止,他还找不到与这本一样有价值的其他书籍。
  My brother is a man more diligent than me.我弟弟是个比我勤奋的人。
  4. 形容词短语通常后置,其功能相当于一个定语从句。如:
  Those brave enough to face the challenge will have a chance to succeed.勇敢面对挑战的人将有机会成功。
  I’m sure he’s the one suitable for the job.我相信他是胜任这项工作的人。
  English is a language easy to learn but difficult to master. 英语是一门容易学但是难精通的语言。
  二、名词+介词短语作后置定语
  China is a country with a large population and a long history.中国是个人口众多、历史悠久的国家。
  We should realize the importance of protecting the environment.我们认识到保护环境的重要性。
  The man with a book in his hand is my English teacher. 手里拿着书的这个人是我的英语老师。
  三、名词+分词(短语)作后置定语
  中心词和作定语用的分词之间有逻辑上的主谓关系,如果表示主动用现在分词;如果表示被动用过去分词。分词短语作定语要放在被修饰的名词后面,作后置定语,其作用相当于一个定语从句。例如:
  The book, written by Amy Chua, aroused a heated discussion.这本Amy Chua写的书引发了激烈的争论。
  The book, telling the author’s experience in educating her daughters in Chinese traditional ways, has attracted much attention.这本关于作者以中国传统方式教育女儿的书吸引了很多人的关注。
  四、名词+不定式短语作后置定语
  1. 被修饰的名词前有序数词或the last, the next, 等修饰时,或者the first, the last等本身作名词使用时,其后常用动词不定式作后置定语。如:
  Liu Xiang, the first Asian to win a gold medal in the 110-metre hurdles, was born in Shanghai.刘翔,赢得110米栏金牌的亚洲第一人,出生于上海。
  He is always the first to come and the last to leave the classroom.他总是第一个来最后一个离开课室的人。
  2. 不定式作后置定语通常表示将来。如:
  The light-rail to be completed in 2015 will make it convenient for people to go to the capital.将在2015年完工的轻轨将使人们去省城变得方便。
  3. 用来修饰抽象名词时用不定式,常见的有:ability, chance, idea, fact, excuse, promise, answer, reply, attempt, belief, way, reason, moment, time等。如:
  The best way to learn English is using it all the time.学习英语的最佳方式是一直使用英语。
  五、名词+定语从句作后置定语
  Finally my mother found out that I was the one who broke the vase.最后妈妈发现我才是那个打烂花瓶的人。
  Amy Chua, who is a Chinese American, works as a professor in Yale. Amy Chua是个美籍华人,在耶鲁大学做教授。
  巩固练习
  按提示翻译下列句子,注意中英文表述中定语位置的差异。
  1. 我是李华,一名在你们大学学习暑期课程的中国人。(现在分词短语)
  2. 这幅画呈现了一个小女孩迎接下班后回家的妈妈的感人时刻。(定语从句)
  3. 惩罚绝不是使孩子们心理和身体健康成长的好方式。(不定式短语)
  4. 我是贵报的忠实读者。(介词短语)
  5. 如果能找到任何适合你的学习方法,你的学习效率就可能明显提高。(形容词短语)
  6. 我在为七月在北京举行的中学生英语演讲比赛做准备。(不定式短语)
  7. 我是个20岁的对英语感兴趣的女孩。(过去分词短语)
  8. 我们永远不能忽视在智慧、生活态度、情绪和健康等方面的成长。(介词短语)
  9. 你最好选择那些你感兴趣又适合你的活动。(定语从句)
  10. 我对你们提供的服务感到不满意。(过去分词短语)
  
  参考答案
  1. I’m Li hua, a Chinese studying a summer course in your university.
  2. This picture shows a touching moment when a little girl greets her mother who has come back from work.
  3. Punishment is by no means a good way to help kids grow up mentally and physically.
  4. I’m a regular reader of your newspaper.
  5. If you can find whatever learning method suitable for you, your study efficiency can be greatly improved.
  6. I’m preparing for the English speech contest to be held in Beijing in July.
  7. I’m a girl aged 20 and interested in English.
  8. We should never ignore the development in wisdom, life attitude, emotion and health.
  9. You’d better choose the activities which interest and suit you.
  10. I’m not satisfied with the service offered by you.
  (作者单位:清远市华侨中学)
  责任编校 蒋小青