英语定语从句的非定语功能
作者 : 未知

  定语从句除了具有定语作用外,还经常表示并列、转折、承接、时间、原因、条件、目的、结果、让步等意义。因此,在学习中正确理解其语义,弄清其功能就显得十分重要。现将定语从句的非定语功能简要归纳如下。
  
  一、表示并列关系
  
  这类定语从句在句中表示并列关系,在语义上对主句进行补充说明,相当于and连接的并列句。如:
  1. Yesterday I went to the department store, where (=and there ) I met my teacher. 昨天我去了百货公司,就在那里遇见了我的老师。
  2. She lived in Paris, during which time (=and during the time) she learned French. 她在巴黎住了3年,在那期间学了法语。
  3. North Island is famous for an area of hot springs, some of which (=and some of them) throw hot water into the air. 北岛是著名的温泉胜地,有些温泉的热水能高高地喷向半空。
  
  二、表示转折或对比关系
  
  这类定语从句在句中表示转折对比关系,在语义上对主句进行补充说明,相当于but, while等连接的并列句。如:
  1. I happened to meet Miss Smith, whom I did’t recognize at once (=but I didn’t recognize her at once.) 我碰巧遇到史密斯小姐,但并没马上认出她来。
  2. Her boyfriend, whose name I have forgotten, is a foreign actor. (=Her boyfriend is a foreign actor, but I have forgotten his name. ) 她的男朋友是个外国演员,名字我已忘了。
  3. She was very patient towards the children, which (=while) her husband seldom was. 她对孩子很有耐心,而她丈夫却很少这样。
  
  三、表示承接关系
  
  这类定语从句在句中表示承接关系,在语义上对主句进行补充说明,相当于and, and then等连接的并列句。如:
  1. Before she could move, she heard a loud noise, which (and then it) grew to a terrible roar. 她还没来得及迈步,就听见一声巨响,接着就是可怕的隆隆轰鸣。
  2. The train reached the small town at two o’clock, where (=and then) it rested for six hours. 火车两点钟抵达那个小镇,然后在那里停留了6个小时。
  3. I had seen my aunt give the person money in the moon-light, who then (=and then he) slunk away and was seen no more. 月光下,我看见我姑妈把钱给了那个人,那个人就偷偷溜走了,再也没见过。
  4. The police arrived, after which (=and after that) the situation became calmer. 警察赶到了,此后局势便趋向平静。
  5. I gave the report to John, who (=and he) later gave it to the department head. 我把这报告了约翰,他又给了系主任。
  
  四、表示时间
  
  这类定语从句在句中表示时间,在语义上相当于when, as, until等引导的时间状语从句。如:
  1. Everybody who had heard the noise jumped up in alarm. (= Everybody jumped up in alarm, when he heard the noise. ) 每个人听到哪个声音时都会惊恐地跳起来。
  2. A driver who is driving a car mustn’t talk with others or be absent-minded. (=A driver mustn’t talk with others or be absent-minded when he is driving a car.) 司机开车时,不能与别人谈话,也不能走神。
  
  五、表示原因
  
  这类定语从句在句中表示原因,在语义上相当于as, because等引导的原因状语从句。如:1. Many tigers are killed by people who (=because they) want to sell their fur and use their bones for medicine. 许多老虎被人杀死,因为他们想出售虎皮并用虎骨做药材。
  2. Many of the Welsh people went to settle in North Carolina where land(=because land there ) was cheap. 许多威尔士人前往北卡罗莱纳定居,因为那里土地价格低廉。
  3. You’d better put off the game until next week, when(=as) the weather may be cooler. 你们最好将比赛延迟到下个星期,那时也许会凉爽一些。
  4. The crew, who were all sleep, didn’t see the rock. (=The crew didn’t see the rock because they were all sleep.) 船员们没有看见礁石,因为他们都睡着了。
  
  六、表示条件
  
  这类定语从句在句中表示条件,在语义上相当于if等引导的条件状语从句。如:
  1. Anybody who should do it would be laughed at. (=Anybody would be laughed at if he should do it. )任何人如果这样做,都会被讥笑。
  2. Cells which (=if they) are not continuously used should not be stored in a discharged condition. 电池如不连续使用,不应该在放电的条件下存放。
  3. Any diet that fails to provide nutrients needed for health and growth can lead to malnutrition. (=Any diet can lead to malnutrition, if it fails to provide nutrients needed for health and growth. ) 饮食中如果不含人体健康和成长所需要的营养成分,就会导致营养不良。
  4. He would be a short-sighted commander who (if he)merely manned his fortress and did not look beyond. 谁如果只守城堡而不往远处看,那他就是一个目光短浅的指挥官。
  
  七、表示让步
  
  这类定语从句在句中表示让步,在语义上相当于though, although等引导的让步状语从句。 如:
  1. Many people who (= though they) had few advantages in their youth have done great things for their country. 许多人虽然青年时代没有多少出众之处,后来却为国家做出了重大贡献。
  2. Professor Liu, who (=though he) is over seventy years old, still conducts research on international relations. 刘教授虽已年逾古稀,还在进行国际关系研究工作。
  
  八、表示目的
  
  这类定语从句在句中表示目的,在语义上相当于so that, in order that等引导的目的状语从句。如:
  1. Today, many vegetables are not grown in gardens but in greenhouses where they are (so that they can be) protected from the wind, rain and insects. 如今好多蔬菜都种在温室里而不种在菜园里,以免它们受风雨和昆虫的侵害。
  2. Envoys were sent who (=so that they) should strengthen our international position. 派出了好几位使节,以便加强我们的国际地位。
  3. He is collecting authentic material that proves (in order that it may prove) his argument. 他正在收集确凿的材料以证明他的论点。
  4. He wants to find a hiding place where (=so that) no one can find him. 他想躲起来让谁也找不到。
  
  九、表示结果
  
  这类定语从句在句中表示结果,在语义上相当于so that等引导的原因状语从句。如:
  1. Last year he had a stroke, which (= so that it) seriously affected his health. 去年他中风了,结果严重损害了他的健康。
  2. Bison waste no longer fell on the ground to improve the soil, which as a result (= with the result that it) became less good for growing plants. 野牛的粪便不再落在土地上以改善土壤,结果土壤变得越发不利于植物的生长。
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