在高中英语的教学过程中如何挖掘教材内涵提高学生的阅读能力

作者:未知

  摘 要:如何培養并提高学生的阅读理解能力是高中英语教学的重点,也是教师最为关注的话题之一。高中英语教材提供了大量题材广泛,文体各异,内容丰富,语言地道的文章。那么教师在课堂教学中应如何充分利用教材资源和挖掘教材内涵,帮助学生形成有效的阅读策略,从而提高阅读能力呢?
  关键词:阅读能力;阅读策略
  在高中英语的教学过程中如何挖掘教材内涵提高学生的阅读能力。
  如何培养并提高学生的阅读理解能力是高中英语教学的重点,也是教师最为关注的话题之一。高中英语教材提供了大量题材广泛,文体各异,内容丰富,语言地道的文章。那么教师在课堂教学中应如何充分利用教材资源和挖掘教材内涵,帮助学生形成有效的阅读策略,从而提高阅读能力呢?
  1.利用课文标题和插图培养和提高学生的预测能力
  课文标题往往体现文章的主旨大意。指导学生充分挖掘标题的内涵有助于学生预测文章内容,理解主题。课文中的插图为课文内容提供了直观的线索。鉴于此,笔者在学生阅读课文前指导学生利用标题Chinese Paper Art和剪纸插图并结合已有的背景知识和生活经验预测课文内容Prediction:Look at the title and the pictures,and guess what the article is mainly about. 进而提出问题“can you present your paper art?” 通过同学们呈现课前准备的纸艺品及相关介绍的情景来引入并确认本课的话题:中国民间艺术-剪纸艺术。针对同学们呈现的纸艺品中大部分是折纸,少数是剪纸这一现象笔者提问:why most of your items made of paper are paper—folding?It seems that you are quite familiar with paper-folding,what about paper-cutting,would you like to read and get more information? 这样不但培养了学生的预测能力,也激发了学生的阅读兴趣,促使他们关注阅读内容,以便进行有效的阅读。
  2.利用教材内容培养学生的语篇分析能力
  英语文章一般由三部分组成:篇首段,主体段和结尾段。篇首段往往起着统领全文,揭示主题的作用;主体段用来阐述文章主题;结尾段概括全文。整篇文章是一个有机的整体,围绕中心展开,有一定的逻辑关系。该课我是运用将段落和段落大意配对的方法来训练学生的语篇分析能力,具体做法如下:
  Read and tell if the topics are mentioned in the text.
  A. The paper-cutting expert who was interviewed
  B. How to make paper cuts
  C. The history of paper cuts
  D. Different colors of paper cuts
  E. Types of paper cuts people like to make
  F. The result of the interview
  Match the topics with paragraphs.
  Para1 A. The paper-cutting expert who was interviewed
  Para2 C. The history of paper cuts
  Para3-6 E. Types of paper cuts people like to make
  Para7 F. The result of the interview
  Which two can be combined into one part
  part1 The introduction of the interviewee
  part2 The information about paper cuts from the interviewee
  part3 The result of the interview
  3.利用文体理清文章的线索和细节的能力。
  教师在教学中应指导学生根据文章的不同体裁来梳理其篇章结构,并根据文章的具体内容通过设计问题,排序,判断正误,填表和画图等练习帮助学生关注文章细节,提高阅读效果。(汪胜光,2005)本课是通过对剪纸艺术家陈子鉴的采访介绍中国的剪纸艺术的说明文,介绍事物的说明文一般采用总-分-总的结构。因此在阅读课文的过程中,我让学生先整体阅读,抓住每部分的大意,然后局部探讨,由浅入深,层层推进,感悟研究。整个阅读的过程,一环扣一环,从分段到剖析每段的内容,在剖析的过程,我采取了不同的方式检查同学们的阅读情况,而且难度步步递进,学生容易接收。实施方法如下:
  While-reading
  Read the history of paper cuts and tell if the statements are true or false.
  True or False:
  1). Paper-cut is a Chinese folk art with a long history in China.
  2). Paper cuts of animals have been found in tombs dating back to Song Dynasty.   3). The young lady would look at the man’s paper-cutting skills to choose her husband.
  Read the types of paper cuts and answer some questions.
  1). How many types of paper cuts do people like to make? What are they?
  2). Which Chinese character often appears in wedding paper cuts?
  3). How is paper-cutting related to fashion?
  Read after the tape and try to remember the information about paper cuts.
  在逐段剖析以后,我不忘做一个总结归纳,以结构图的形式呈现文章的结构,
  Retell the information about paper cuts
  A long history dating back to the Northern and Southern Dynasty
  History
  Importance:a man would choose his bride looking at her paper-cutting skills
  Used for decorating windows,gates and presents
  Used for religious purposes,such as those found in temple or offerings to the dead
  Used for design patterns,such as patterns on clothing or on jewellery boxes.
  让学生更清楚整篇文章的结构,在了解文章结构的基础上也不忘培养学生归纳和复述课文的主题内容的能力。全过程是个总-分-总的过程,给了学生充分的阅读和理解的机会,既利于学生对文章的理解,也有利于他们认识文章结构并能在写作中运用得上。如何梳理文章结构是提高阅读和写作的重要环节,训练学生梳理文章结构有利于其语言的综合运用。
  4.利用课文原句培养学生的猜词能力
  文章中某些关键词或短语直接影响学生对整个句子甚至通篇文章的理解。任何一篇阅读材料中的关键词或短语都不是孤立的,通过使用一些阅读策略根据上下文进行合乎逻辑的分析,能轻松地猜出词意。该课中有这样一个句子:“Used for religious purposes,such as those found in temple or offerings to the dead ”学生根据上下文的内容those found in temple 和to the dead不难猜出religious的意思是宗教的;offerings的意思是祭品。
  5.利用教材内容培养学生的推理判断能力
  推理和判断能力是较高层次的认知活动,它可以培养学生的逻辑思维能力。教师在教学中应指导学生根据文中提供的已知信息作出合理的推理和判断。在本课有关剪纸的历史中有这样一个信息 “A young farmer who wanted a wife would look at a young woman’s paper-cutting skills before marrying her!”对此已知信息笔者设计了一个问题 “What problem would you face if you were the women who are not good at paper-cutting in the Southern Song Dynasty?”讓学生进行判断。学生可以通过分析得出no farmer wanted to marry us的答案从而推断出剪纸在历史上对普通老百姓有着关系到婚姻大事的重大意义。
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