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动词不定式和动名词作主语和宾语的用法

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  摘 要:非谓语动词是高中三年乃至以后英语学习中非常重要的内容,是整个高中阶段教学中的重点和难点,它是英语语法填空和短文改错的必考知识点。
  关键词:非谓语动词;动词不定式;动名词
  非谓语动词是动词的一种特殊形式,在句子中不能做谓语,而是担任其他语法功能的动词,非谓语动词包括动词不定式、分词(现分词和过去分词)和动名词三种形式。下面就动词不定式,动名词作主语,宾语的用法加以比较。
  一、动词不定式和动名词作主语的区别
  1.动名词作主语往往表示一般的、泛指的或习惯性的行为;而动词不定式作主语则表示一次性的或将来的动作。例如:
  (1)Swimming is fun in summer.夏天游泳是有趣的事。
  (2)To swim in this river is a great pleasure.在这条河里游泳是件非常快乐的事。注:当然有时这种区别并不很严格。但要注意:主语和表语要用同一种形式。例如:
  (3)To see is to believe=Seeing is believing.眼见为实。
  2.有时候动名词和动词不定式作主语,可以用it当形式主语,把真正的主语置后。
  (1)It's difficult (important,necessary…) for sb to do。
  (2)It's kind(good,friendly,polite,careless,rude,cruel,clever.,
  foolish brave…) of sb to do(如上例中)。
  (3)It's no good (use,fun…)doing。
  (4)It's (a) waste of time one's doing
  二、不定式、动名词作宾语的区别。
  1.有些动词只能跟动词不定式作宾语,常见的动词有:help,hope,ask,refuse,decide,promise,wish,pretend,expect,learn,pan,manage,agree,fail,offer,happen,seem等等。例如:
  (1)I want to have a talk with her.我想跟她谈谈。
  (2)Our teacher decided to stay with us 老师决定留下来与我们在一起。
  2.有些动词或短语只能接动名词作宾语。常见的有:mind,finishenjoy,suggest,consider,miss,keep(on),avoid,stand,allow,practice,giveup,put off,look forward to,feel like,prevent…from, can't help,be used to,be. worth doing,be busy doing,等。例如:
  (1)Would you mind opening the window?打开窗好吗?
  (2)They are looking forward to coming to China.他们期待着来中国。
  3.有些动词后面既可接不定式,又可接动名词,其意义基本相同,区别不大。常见的动词有:love,hate,prefer,begin, start,continue等。例如:
  (1)After the teacher left the classroom the students began to do/doing their homework.老师离开教室后,学生们开始做作业。
  (2)They continued to read/reading English.他们继续读英语。
  4.有些动词后面即可以接不定式,也可以接动名词但意义区别很大,注意以下两种情况:
  A.need/want /require/deserve 接-ing形式的主動形式或不定式的被动形式表示被动意义,例如:
  (1)Your house needs repairing/to be repaired.你的房子需要维修。
  (2)The problem requiresvsolving/to be solved immediately.这个问题需要立即予以解决。
  B.区别以下短语的含义:
  .stop to do (停止手中做的事去,去做另一件事/)//stop doing(停止正在做的事)
  remember/forget/regret to do (指动作尚未发生)
  /remember/forget/regret doing (指动作已经发生生)
  go on to do(接着做另一件事)
  /go on doing(接着做同一件事)
  try to do(设法,努力去做,尽力)
  /try doing (试着去做,看有何结果)
  mean to do(打算做,企图做)
  /mean doing (意思是,意味着)
  can't help to do (不能帮忙做某事)
  /can't help doing (禁不住去做某事,情不自禁地做某事) 例如:
  (1)We stopped to have a rest.我们停止工作休息一下。(指停止手边的工作来休息)。
  (2)We stopped working 我们停止工作。
  (3)I forgot to close the windows this morning.今天早晨我忘记关窗户了(窗户没关)。
  (4)I forgot paying for this book.我忘了已经付过这本书的钱。(之前已经付过钱了)
  C.不定式还可以做介词but和except的宾语.例如:
  (1)The teacher made no comments except to tell him to work out.老师除了教他努力学习外,未做任何评价。
  (2)If he takes on this work,he will have no choice but to meet an even greater challenge.如果他从事这项工作,她将别无选择,只能迎接更大的挑战。
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