英语定语从句的汉译技巧分析
作者 : 未知

  一、译为先行词的定语
  将英语原文的定语从句译成汉语带"的"字的词组, 放在所修饰的名词即先行词之前,这种方法被称为合译法。这样,原英语的主句和定语从句就被合译成了汉语的单句。一般来说,这种方法适用于限定性定语从句,但短且与主句关系密切的非限定性定语从句也可采用此译法。
  (一)转译成主谓词组充当的定语
   1、The person who smokes one or two packs of cigarettes a day loses on average six to eight percent of his blood's oxygen-carrying capacity.
  一天吸两包烟的人平均要丧失百分之六到八的血液携氧能力。
  2、The women's Liberation movement, which developed during the 1960s, has focused on economic rights such as "equal pay for equal work".
  20世纪60年代期间发展起来的妇女解放运动焦点是争取"同工同酬"等经济权利。
  (二)转译成偏正词组或介宾词组等充当的定语
   At once the sky grew dark, and the ground opened up near the spot where they were standing.
  刹那间,天昏地黑,他们所站地附近的地面裂了开来。
  二、译为并列分句
  对于结构复杂,句式冗长的定语从句或当与其所修饰的名词之间关系不甚密切时,往往不大适合译成前置结构,而多采用分译法,即将定语从句译为并列句,放在其所修饰的词后。这时,可分为两种情况:重复英语的先行词和省略英语的先行词。
  (一)重复英语的先行词
   1、The university has enrolled 40 students from the poverty-stricken areas whom they hope will make contributions for their hometown.
  这所大学从贫困地区招收了40名学生,希望他们将来为家乡做贡献。
   2、Man possesses an expressive faculty that goes far beyond gestures, that allows and even compels him to express his thoughts, feedings, dreams, and intuitions.
  人类具有远远超过于手势的表达官能,这种官能不仅使人能够,而且使他要把思想、感情、幻梦、直觉表达出来。
  这些先行词的重复,有时用的是代词如1,有时用的是先行词本身,如2。汉译时,需重复先行词的地方,就要重复。否则会影响意思的连贯和清楚。
  (二)省略先行词
   1、A will had been made which divide the small tax -eaten property equally among the remaining four, so that it was really of no interest to any of them.
  遗嘱已立好,把这片快要给税吃光的薄产平分给四个孩子,但谁都对此不感兴趣。
  对于本句中"which"引导的定语从句的处理,是省略的先行词"A will",直接把它译成两个并列分句,保证了叙述的连贯性。
  2、The lungs are subjected to several diseases which are treatable by surgery.
  肺易受几种疾病的侵袭,但均可经手术治疗。
  三、译为状语
  英语定语从句,尤其是非限制性定语从句,在特定的上下文中可以表示时间、条件、原因、让步、目的、结果等关系。因此,要注意从英语原句的字里行间去发现这种逻辑关系,并在汉译的过程中加以体现。
  (一)译为时间状语
  He has never been back to his hometown, where he left 20 years ago.
  他自20年前离开故乡以来,一直没回去过。
  (二)译为条件状语
   In a dispute between two states with which one is friendly, try not to get involved.
  在两国发生争端时,如与该两国皆友好,则应避免卷入。
  (三)译为原因状语
   The ambassador was giving a dinner for a few people whom he wished especially to talk to or hear from.
  大使只宴请几个人,因为他特地想和这几个人谈谈,听听他们的意见。
  (四)译为让步状语
  He insisted on building another house, which he had no use for.
  他坚持再造一所房子,尽管他无此需要。
   (五)译为目的状语
  One of the hall-marks of Rodin's work is the "unfinished" state where he prefers to leave something to the imagination of the beholder.
  罗丹作品的一个高质量标志就是他宁愿使它们处于"未竟"之状态,以便让观赏者有想象的余地。(表示目的)
  (六)译为结果状语
  Copper, which is used so widely for carrying electricity, offers very little resistance.
  铜的电阻很小,因此被广泛用于输电。
  四、译成简单句
  把原句中的主语和定语从句溶合在一起译成一个简单句,这种方法被称为溶合法。这种方法比较适合于翻译与主句关系比较密切的限制性定语从句和There be句型。如:
  There are principles which we all believe in.
  有的原则是大家公认的。
  五、译为复合宾语
  当主句的谓语动词是表示"感观"或"心理活动"等意义时,修饰宾语的定语从句多译为复合宾语。
   I also found on the ground near the tracks of the lamed groups of ants which were pulling grains of corn.
  我还看见骆驼的脚印边有许多的蚂蚁在拖玉米粒。
  六、译为动宾结构
  英语里某些定语从句的谓语与先行词具有支配与被支配的关系,因此先行词可译为该谓语的宾语,这样,原文的限定结构就转换成了译文的动宾结构。如:
  Diana, awed by the tumultuous river, which he had seen only once, was reluctant.
  戴安娜只见过那条河一次,对那汹涌的河流有点胆怯,因此不想去。
  七、译为同位语从句
  在翻译定语从句时,无论是限定性定语从句还是非限定性定语从句,有时可将其译成类似汉语中"即"字结构的同位语从句。如:
  This is called non-linear editing, as opposed to linear editing, in which a video has to edited in sequence.
  这种被称为非线性编辑。与之相对的是线性编辑,即一段视频材料必须按时序编辑。
  综上举例可以看出,翻译定义从句时,可将其译为定语词组,并列分句、状语从句、复合宾语,同位语从句等。这些形式是英译汉的主要"框架结构",并非全部"标准答案"。在具体和翻译实践中,我们应该视其不同情况,选用不同的形式或作灵活变通处理。
  
  参考文献:
  [1]贾从永.四六级难句攻关[J].大学英语, 2010,(02).
  [2]袁瑛.生物专业英语定语从句的翻译技巧[J].中国科技翻译, 2010, (01).
  [3]赖慧云.考研英语翻译解析[J].大学英语,2010,(02).

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